(photo credit Amy Novak)
At last, the derby was upon us. I, like everyone involved, had long anticipated this date. All the hard work, planning and preparation we had undertaken was finally coming to fruition. The event and fishery are hard to describe to those who haven’t experienced it. There is a kind of brotherhood formed among fisherman when you run 70 miles offshore together chasing the often elusive Albacore Tuna. Even the most veteran of captains will tell you the many unknowns and uncontrollable factors involved in this fishery give it an addictive attraction comparable to high stakes gambling. Will you spend $1000 on gas, catch nothing and get relentlessly beaten by the seas? Will the stars align with good weather and a full boat of Tuna? Each day differs and nothing is ever guaranteed.
This year the odds looked stacked against us. While calm seas were forecasted, the Albacore seemed to have vanished in the week leading up to the event. For this fishery we rely on satellites to report sea surface temperatures (SST) and chlorophyll levels. With these two pieces of information we can predict where the Tuna are most likely to be located. You look for sharp temperature breaks where the water typically jumps from roughly 58 degrees fahrenheit to 62 degrees over a short distance. At these breaks you also look for chlorophyll levels that represent blue water more comparable to Hawaii than the coast of British Columbia.
In previous years we had often fished alongside Canadian commercial Albacore boats in the local canyons. This year the canyons were empty as the commercial fleet had all followed the fish up to the top end of Haida Gwaii near the Alaskan border. 2014 was an El Ninio year along the coast of British Columbia. This brings abnormally high temperatures to our waters which we had all hoped would result in the Tuna being pushed closer to shore. The reality turned out to be that it pushed the main biomass of Albacore further north than we had seen before. I had been continually phoning the more experienced captains in the days leading up to the derby to get their opinion of where the fish would be. Their answers were what I had feared. The only good looking water was 85 miles to the north off Esperanza Canyon or 100+ miles offshore. With these factors being out of our control, we did what any good fisherman would do. We prayed to the fish gods and drank a few more beers.
September 12th: Opening Day
While Friday did not represent a fishing day, it officially kicked off the start of the 2014 Bamfield Tuna Shootout. Crews began to trickle into town to attend the opening dinner at Seabeam Lodge and prepare for the chaotic week that lay ahead. Myself and a number of volunteers had planned to meet around noon to begin preparation for the opening ceremonies at 5pm. With nothing scheduled that morning, I decided to take advantage of some stellar late season salmon fishing before the focus changed to Tuna. I hit the water solo, motoring down the Harbour still surrounded by darkness. Flat calm seas and an amazing sunrise met me as I entered Barkley Sound. I had seen this scene many times before but it will never get old….
(Sunrise in Trevor Channel outside of Bamfield: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
It did not take long before I was into a double header of Coho with the sun still breaking from behind the Cedars. This steady action continued for the next hour and soon I was headed home with a limit of fresh coho for the BBQ that evening. Along the way home I spotted a familiar pair of black objects on the shoreline. A Black Bear sow and her cub had been hanging in the area near the lodge all summer, roaming the shoreline at low tides. I had my camera with me and she happily fed her way over to me without showing any signs of stress. Just another morning in Bamfield. Spectacular fishing, wildlife and home in time for breakfast.
(A Black Bear sow feeding in Bamfield Harbour: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
The opening dinner at Seabeam Lodge was fantastic. The owner Brad Whiteside, the Dutton family of Pheasant Glen and a number of volunteers put together a great spread for all the crews. Everyone enjoyed a steak dinner on the lodge deck overlooking the water, under a stunning sunset. The keg that was donated by Longwood Brewery kept everyone happy and the stories flowing. Captains buckets were handed out to each crew, rules were briefly outlined and everyone headed for the racks in preparation for the first day.
(A few lingering crews at the opening dinner: photo credit John Loehr)
September 13th: The Unknown
Day one would see the largest Tuna sportfishing fleet to ever hit western Canada. 25-30 boats would be making the run from Bamfield and spreading out over the canyons. Weather forecasts were as good as it gets with small swell at long intervals and no wind on top. Having no weather limitations was vital as we all knew it would be a day of hunting with a lot of water covered.With no fresh reports from the last 7 days to work with, crews relied exclusively on satellite shots to determine where they would head. The warm water had moved in 15 miles over the last 24 hours but it was still on the outside edge of the canyons approximately 65 miles offshore. There was a clear temperature break with good chlorophyll levels due west deep into Loudon Canyon. This is where the the majority of crews had decided to start.
In the dim light of dawn we all set off with the sun beginning to rise over the rugged mountain peaks behind us. The seas were flat and the excitement over the radio was evident. Water temperatures held steady until 40 miles out where there was a slight jump from 56 to 58 degrees with green water. This first temperature break was supporting a massive amount of life. Suddenly all around whales, dolphins, birds and baitfish began to show. This was simply too tempting and many boats dropped their spreads only to find the area void of Tuna with only the odd Coho landed. We pushed on all the water to 65 miles before finding the second temperature break. Here the water jumped from 58 to 62 degrees and went from aquatic green to gin clear to pelagic blue. It had Tuna written all over it.
(A Black-footed Albatross resting on the temperature break: photo credit Amy Novak)
We dumped our gear and began working the edge in a NW direction. On and on we went finding water as warm as 64 degrees but it was largely empty of life, with only the odd Albatross gliding in and out of view. Radio chatter confirmed our findings as everyone scratched their heads at the perfect conditions but apparent lack of Tuna. It was not until 11 am that the repetitive “nope nothing yet” chatter was broken with the news we were all waiting for. “TUNA”. Willey’s Rig, Sculpin andFreedom 22 had found a small area of Tuna and begun working the schools with good results. They reported the grade was quite small(6-10lbs) but everyone was just happy there were Tuna. The 2014 Bamfield Tuna Shootout was officially on.
(The crew of the Sculpin with a small grade Albacore: photo credit John Loehr)
Coordinates were given over the radio and soon the fleet all began to zero in on an area approximately 9 square miles. Fishing was not hot and heavy, nor were the fish big but everyone enjoyed getting into some action. With the glass calm conditions we were able to sight schools of jumpers that when trolled around would usually result in a couple of hits. Temperatures in this area were quite high at 64 degrees with an aqua blue water colour. To the south 15 miles Rodzilla had also managed a double header of larger grade fish. With this report, a few boats began to move away in search of a larger grade of fish but after a few hours all reported donuts.
(Speed Dancer hooked up while the fleet works the water in the background: Photo credit Amy Novak)
Late in the day some exciting news came over the radio. The crew aboard the Trophy Hunter had hooked something large. Very large. It had hit an X-rap and burned out the back on a blistering run, snapping three other lines in the process. 200 yards back it thrashed heavily on the surface and then sounded deep. They backed down on it and played tug of war vertically but after 15 minutes reported they were loosing ground. Quickly they tried to tie a second rod off to the reel seat of the original rod but it was too late and the beast spooled them. That is one of the most exciting parts of this offshore fishery. You never know what you will hook. Bill fish sightings from the commercial fleet occasionally occur . There are a number of exotic species that will enter our waters infrequently, especially being an El Nino year.
As the hot sun above began to lower, lines were pulled and the fleet began to head home for the barn. The top boat on the day was Willey’s Rig with 16 fish, all of a small grade. Rodzilla had taken first place in the aggregate weight thanks to a 17 and 21 pound double header. Not the hot derby start we had all hoped for but it was a start.
September 14th: The Peanut Gallery
Day two was relatively uneventful with events playing out much like day one. Seas were flat calm, the weather was smoking hot and the Tuna were… well peanuts. Again the only consistent action was coming from the same small area of water off of Loudon Canyon.
(Nothing gets the heart pumping like watching a school of Saury getting crashed by Albacore: Photo credit Amy Novak)
With the flat calm water conditions, it made sighting not only Tuna but also wildlife much easier. Like Albacore, many of the species we encounter on the grounds will never come to inshore waters. On the run out we spotted Pacific White-Sided Dolphins, Dalls Porpoise, Northern Right Whale Dolphins and Rissos Dolphins. A large group of Fin Whales had also joined the fleet on day two. These animals are massive! Growing up to 75 feet in length, they are the second largest mammal on earth only to the Blue Whale. It was amazing watching these gigantic creatures come up right next to the boat.
(A Pair of Humpback Whales cruise through along in perfect conditions: Photo credit Dave Kondics)
In addition to the whales, all around us large Sunfish up to 10 feet across drifted on the surface. Sunfish or “Mola Mola” are the heaviest bony fish in the world with an average adult weight of 2,200 lbs. They are one of the main obstacles to avoid when travelling offshore as their immense size and surface tendencies create a hazard for engine legs.
(A large Sunfish slowly cruises away from a boat in clear offshore waters: photo credit Chris Schmidt)
Again the fishing was steady with the Sculpin crew being the top boat, managing 18 small grade Albacore. The Trophy Hunter landed a 22lber which helped moved him into first place in both the aggregate and large fish category. With calm conditions persisting, a number of boats decided to overnight on the grounds. They drifted, taking shifts watching radar for commercial traffic. They were not alone however as the offshore nightlife kept them company.
(Smelling the blood from draining fish holds, Blue Sharks circled overnighting boats looking for scraps: Photo credit John Loehr)
September 15th: Peanut Allergies
Conditions were as nice as one could hope for. Zero swell, zero wind and 25 degree sunshine. After fishing hard the previous two days with only peanuts hitting the decks, a number of crews decided to take the day off and recharge. Approximately 10 boats made the long run out to the canyons. I took to the hills with Jon in hopes of another derby buck but the conditions were all wrong for that pursuit. We spotted some herds of Elk near town, watching the young males spar while the dominant bull watched on with his harem of cows. On the 17th however Brad Whiteside would go on to successfully harvest a Blacktail Deer near town, adding to the tuna already in the freezer.
(Two young bulls taking a break from sparring: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
Offshore everyone was enjoying the stellar conditions and steady fishing. The small grade of fish continued with 6-10 lbers but numbers were solid with most boats in the 10-15 fish range. The top boat was Jesse’s Rig, who didn’t arrive on the grounds until 1pm and managed to boat 24 before pulling the pin at 4pm. Some guys even joined the Blue Sharks with a post fishing swim to cap the day.
(Jesse’s Rig Was the hot boat with 24 on day 3: Photo credit Amy Novak)
Later that evening the film crew arrived to begin production on Chasing Tuna. We had been working with the production team for months trying to work out the details on a film that would highlight The Bamfield Tuna Shootout, the fishery and the area. Teaming up with Trent, captain of Rodzilla, they set out to film the experience of three North Shore Search and Rescue members. We loaded the boat to the brim with camera gear on the Eastside Government Dock and shuttled everything to base camp at Mckay Bay.
September 16th: Lights, Camera, No Action
There was a change in the winds on day 4. Low pressure was moving inshore which would bring an end to our sunny weather and kick up a nasty southeaster. 25+ knots was forecasted which kept some boats tied to the dock and those headed offshore wary. The swell was still small and spaced but anyone worth their salt will tell you that you don’t want to be running 75 miles northwest if its going to blow up southeast. With one eye on the weather 6 boats headed offshore to see if things had changed in the waters off of Loudon.
Shortly into our run the wind began to pick up. While conditions were not ideal they were still fishable and we soon found ourselves on the familiar grounds off of Loudon Canyon. Right away we noticed things had changed. The once bountiful area was now largely void of life aside from the odd Sunfish and Albatross. Everyone scratched away until the radio silence was broken. Jesse’s Rig reported a double header around 10am and the fleet began to work their way towards the coordinates. Rodzilla, who had the film crew aboard was the next to hookup. He managed to boat a triple header and the excitement of some action had everyone working hard.
(Filming Rodzilla’s triple header from the chase boat: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
Unfortunately things only tapered off from there. A few boats caught fish here and there but it was scratchy fishing at best. Over the 4 hours we were there, all boats noted that the temperature had dropped steadily from 64 degrees to 60 degrees. The water was on the move. While things looked bleak with the warm water moving out we all hoped this change might be a positive with new fish arriving.
With limited footage for the film crew and frustration on most boats, we all headed back for the barn. The run in was uneventful aside from the steady pounding delivered by the 20 knot SE. It was not until we hit cell coverage 35 miles offshore that things changed. I had a voicemail that informed us the Why Knot crew had found fish the day before and just weighed in. Not only had they found fish but the size and numbers we were looking for. They managed to boat 24 fish the day before into the upper 20s. They had taken over the lead with a 100.25 four fish aggregate.
Details were still sketchy on where but the rumour was in-between Barkley and Nitnat Canyon. This area, while normally a productive region, had been void of tuna all week. Green water and cool temperatures had been reported by all boats that had fished there but nobody had fished it for two days so anything was possible. With new found excitement, the fleet prepared for the following day. Battle plans were forged late into the night by crews around the camp fire at Mills Landing. Beer and bullshit flowed but still plan was set into motion. Each of the 15-20 boats would spread themselves 2 miles apart along Nitnat and Barkley Canyons in hopes of covering a maximum amount of water. With that, everyone hit the racks while dreams of Tuna still danced in their heads.
September 17th: The Salmon derby
As with any day of Tuna fishing, we checked updated weather forecasts and buoy reports before leaving the dock. The forecast was for mediocre conditions but the buoy reports were much better with small swell and low winds. The fleet was once again recharged with a number of new boats arriving energized and anxious for that first screaming reel. In the dark of morning we all left the harbour looking like a Christmas parade of red and green navigation lights.
As we approached our destinations on the outside of the canyons the water was still cold and green. We ran past our pre assigned coordinates and eventually dropped gear in 59 degree water that was gin clear. Things looked promising as there was marine life all around. Humpbacks and birds were feeding as far as the eye could see. The radio buzzed with constant chatter, mostly comparing water temperatures. Everyone reported temperatures of 57-60 degrees which is on the cool side but still well capable of holding Albacore. It wasn’t long before the reports of fish started. “Fish on! Oh wait Coho, never mind”.
(Coho aggressively slammed the Tuna gear being trolled at 7 knots: photo credit John Loehr)
Over and over boats reported nothing but Coho. The running joke was that it was going to be switched over to a Salmon derby. All jokes aside it would have been a good derby! The Coho were the largest grade of fish we had seen all year, with lots of fish in the mid and even upper teens. We weren’t the only ones putting a dent in the Coho. A large pod of Killer Whales were also working the canyons corralling the coho on the surface. They put on a show for everyone, breaching and tail slapping through the fleet.
(The Rodzilla crew landing a Coho while two Orcas come over for a look: photo credit Amy Novak)
(A large male Orca swims past out Dave’s Not Here: photo Dave Kondics)
While this was all good and fun, we weren’t here to catch Salmon or watch whales. Many of us began trolling out towards the American border looking for a temperature break that might hold Albacore. Near the border a massive United States Coast Guard cutter was patrolling and sent the Sikorsky Jayhawk helicopter to check us out. On radar, a fleet of small sport fishing boats 70 miles offshore working the border would likely look a bit questionable on. Satisfied we were just out to lunch fisherman and not Taliban they moved their patrol on further offshore.
(A U.S Coast Guard Jayhawk taking off from a cutter to patrol the fleet: photo credit Dave Kondics)
The afternoon progressed onward and still nobody had hit a Tuna. It was time for a new plan as the day was clearly a bust. Down but not defeated we all headed back scratching our heads on what the next move would be. An entire fleet skunked! Could be the first day in the history of the Tuna Shootout that not a single fish would be weighed in? As weigh in closing time approached we all cleaned coho and nursed our wounds with a few beers. There was only one boat who had gone north, back to Loudon Canyon. He had been out of radio range so we were all hopeful that he had found fish.
As the weigh in closure approached, Brian Baird, Captain of the Otto, pulled in. Saving the skunk, he reported scratchy fishing with 5 Albacore but he had a first for The Bamfield Tuna Shootout. A Pacific Bluefin Tuna! These fish can grow to massive sizes, pushing the scales to 1000+ lbs in southern waters. Here in the Northeast Pacific however we only encounter them in their juvenile stage and rarely do they ever exceed 50 lbs. Still this was a pretty cool sight to see, as there have only been a handful sport caught off the coast of BC. It wasn’t the lights out report we had hoped for but it was a lot better than the rest of the fleet had done. Back to Loudon it was.
(one of only a handful of Bluefin Tuna ever sport caught on the BC coast. Note the small pectoral fins compared to the normal Albacore above: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
September 18th: We’ve got a ball game
We had experienced tough fishing thus far. This years grade of fish was much smaller than we had ever seen and the numbers were also down significantly from previous derbies. Everyone was still having a blast but we all hoped things were going to turn on before it was too late.
On Thursday morning, I stayed inshore with some of the film crew while approximately 15 boats made the long run back out to the canyons. The weather looked decent with some SE chop and a small swell. Offshore crews were starting to set their spreads while we cruised the inlets filming the local people, wildlife and scenery that make this area so amazing.
It was mid morning and we had just returned to Mckay Bay from filming when I got the text from Jeff Nish. “It’s on”. Dave Kondics, captain of Dave’s Not Here had called in via satellite phone and updated everyone onshore that not only were the numbers up but the grade of fish was three times that of previous days!
Offshore the majority of the fleet had run back to the spot that had previously produced fish on the outside edge of Loudon Canyon. The water conditions here had changed from the previous days in this area. The water was cooler with a temperature break that went from 58.5 degrees to 60.5 degrees and the water colour turned to a gin blue. This was more typical of Tuna water than the warm 64 degree aqua blue that had held fish earlier in the week. In addition to these changes, there was also a huge abundance of birds that indicated there was large amounts of bait now in the region.
The crew aboard the Trophy Hunter were the first to strike. They had dropped their gear upon crossing the temperature break but it resulted in a double header of Coho. Picking up gear, they ran a few more miles and reset. After getting the 8th rod out, it went off! 7 rods hooked up and the grade was much better than we had seen all derby at 15-30 lbs.
(A prime Albacore aboard the Trophy Hunter: photo credit Trevor Skakun)
As in the spirit of the derby Captain Jody Thompson called out coordinates to the fleet and soon everyone was zeroing in on the area. It soon became apparent that not only was the biomass of fish a larger grade but they were also spread out over a much larger area. All through the outside edge of the canyon crews were hooking up on trophy sized Albacore. The action was not wide open as sometimes seen but it was steady with singles and doubles all morning. Reports were that 30+ lb fish were hitting the decks and everyone knew the leader board was about to change.Finally the derby was on!
(The biggest Albacore of the derby, a 35.8 lb hog: photo Andrew Sanderson)
As the afternoon progressed the bite began to slow and crews began the long run back to Bamfield . The weigh in station was full of excitement as the first boats began to enter the harbour. Crews who hadn’t fished waited anxiously on the dock to see if the rumours were true. Rodzilla arrived first with the film crew and their box confirmed reports!
(The Rodzilla crew shooting for Chasing Tuna: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
From then on a steady stream of Albacore hit the docks. The biggest Albacore had sat at 27 lbs from Why Knot on day three. This was broken with a 29.5 from Dave Kondics, followed by a 30.5 aboard the Trophy Hunter, a 32.5 from Jay Schindle and finally a 35.8 hog from the boys aboard the Pai Lo Lo. One reoccurring theme was that nobody could put together 4 large fish. Most boats had one or two quality fish and then the rest were in the low twenties or high teens.
(Trophy Hunter was the top boat on day 6 with 20 fish but a 30+ lber lost at the boat cost the aggregate lead: photo Trevor Skakun)
As the dust settled, in addition to the largest fish, we also had a new aggregate leader. Pai Lo Lo had taken over both categories. On the backs of their 35.8 lber and a 29.8 lber they managed to put together a 105.7 lb four fish aggregate. While an impressive number, we all knew it was not untouchable. There were large fish out there as evident by some of the slabs we had seen and all it would take is a boat landing 3 or 4 of these fish. With fishing hot and big money on the line, crews carefully prepared for the assault the following morning.
September 19th: A shootout in the wild west
The weather reports and forecast were a bit snotty but they were fishable. A steady 15 knot SE had created some chop and tightened the small swell that had moved in ahead of another system far offshore. Winds were supposed to drop through the morning while the swell would build and space itself out. As the first hints of light began to show, the fleet began to leave the harbour. Running lights bounced all around as everyone set their heading to the west. For the first time in the derby we knew exactly where we were going and had confidence it would produce.
Some boats had left the harbour the previous evening in darkness, motoring slowly out to the grounds at 6 knots. This saved gas and allowed for gear to be deployed and fishing at first light while others were still running out. After 20 miles of running, the radio crackled with reports of fish already hitting the deck. San Mateo was on the fish and had more than half a dozen before any of the boats who left that morning arrived on the grounds. Through sloppy conditions everyone pounded out and quickly set their spreads.
(All crews were into fish steadily through the morning hours: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
Soon, the radio lit up with reports of fish all through the fleet. Huge schools of jumpers could be seen crashing the surface, destroying bait balls of frantic Saurey. Winds had also begun to drop which made fishing and spotting fish significantly easier. The action was again steady but not lights out with singles and doubles being the norm. Numbers were quickly growing as boats announced their catches on the radio. “five”, “eight”, “seventeen”.
(It was not only Albacore attacking the spreads. You had to keep a careful eye out to avoid aggressive Albatross : photo Deryk Krefting)
It was not long after noon that some boats began to run out of ice. San Mateo reported they were plugged with 30 Albacore into the high 20s and headed back for Bamfield. The leaders listened to this nervously, knowing they could be bumped back. As the afternoon progressed the bite slowed. Fish could still be seen crashing bait but they had turned off from the gear being towed all around them. This was the scenario that live bait excels and everyone dreamed of having live Anchovies available in Canada. Lots of brainstorming had been done to try and fix this problem but alas no feasible options had yet been devised.
(Saury being attacked by Tuna below and Albatross above: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
I was fishing with aboard the Trophy Hunter, we had two dozen fish in the holds on ice and were about to pull the pin when a late afternoon bite turned on. The radio confirmed that we weren’t the only ones enjoying a last minute spurt and after a half dozen fish in 30 minutes we were forced to pull the pin leaving the bite to make it back for weigh in. By this point the swell had built significantly to 2.5+ meters but there was no wind on top and it was spaced out nicely which resulted in a smooth run home.
(The Shirley Barbara was the lone commercial boat trying for a late season load: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
Arriving at the weigh in station confirmed what we had noticed. The grade had dropped from the previous day with almost every fish in the 15-25 lb range which resulted in no changes on the leader board. Notably, San Mateo, who had reported some contending fish had yet to weigh in, opting to weigh in during the morning session. In addition to this Coast Guard had given the green light for fishing on Saturday and a few crews were ready for one last kick at the can. Nobody on the leader board would be sleeping easy.
September 20th: Winner winner and a hamburger dinner
As forecasted, high pressure had moved into the region which brought an end to the southeaster. Big 3 meter swell had built ahead of another system moving in from offshore but the skies were clear and the winds calm. Coastguard had given a green light as there was a large period in-between swells which gives a roller coaster ride but comfortable fishing conditions. With big water and early weigh in times, most crews decided to kick back and relax. Some fished salmon, others cleaned up from Friday’s carnage and some just enjoyed beers in the sunshine.
Everyone waited eagerly to see if San Mateo could make a move onto the leader board. As weigh in opened, they pulled up to Mckay Bay and headed over to see what the scales said. Their four fish aggregate came in at 99 lbs. Less than a pound short of third place and the money. With only three boats left fishing things looked pretty much locked in but there it’s fishing after all and anything can happen.
In the afternoon we took advantage of the gorgeous weather by shooting some last minute footage for Chasing Tuna. Cruising the passages we ended up at the surf line filming one of the local Sea Lion colonies. In the horizon offshore we saw the small specs of boats appearing and disappearing in the substantial swell. It was the last of the Tuna fleet coming in. A quick call over the VHF reported jumpers but scratchy fishing. None of the three boats had any contenders aboard and they would not be weighing in.
That confirmed it. Pai LoLo had held on for the win with the largest 4 Albacore aggregate and largest Albacore. Captain Mac Laporte and his crew would be walking away with a cool $12,000. We headed back to the harbour to finish preparing for the wrap up awards party. The Bamfield Volunteer Fire Department had offered the use of the fire hall, even supplying a hamburger dinner and drinks. The place was packed with fisherman as cheques were presented to the top three finishing teams and sponsor provided prizes were drawn, allowing almost everyone to walk away with something.
(Captain Mac Laporte and the boys with a $10,000 cheque for largest 4 fish aggregate and a $2000 bonus for largest Albacore: photo credit Kelly Aspinall)
With that the 2014 Bamfield Tuna Shootout was in the books! A huge thank you goes out to all of our sponsors, everyone in Bamfield who helped put this event on and the participating crews who continue to expand this fishery in Canada.